Revision notes for Biology AS Unit 1 – Epithelial cell and organelles

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This is a very brief overview of the main organelles present in a epithelial cell that you will need to know for Biology AS level. You may not be familiar with a lot of the terminology used but this will come with further understanding and learning of Biology AS. This summary of cell organelles was given to me at the start of the year and made learning their structure and functions very easy.

I apologise for the very simple layout of this, I’m still new to the WordPress site so I couldn’t make a table for these organelles, which would’ve been a lot more easier to read and revise from but I hope you still find this helpful.

 

STRUCTURE

  • Nucleus

 

ULTRASTRUCTURE

  • Double membrane (nuclear envelope)
  • Nucleolus
  • Nuclear pores

 

FUNCTION

  • Contains the genetic material

 

 

STRUCTURE

  • Mitochondria

 

ULTRASTRUCTURE

  • Double membrane
  • Folds  are called Cristae
  • Liquid is called Matrix

 

FUNCTION

  • The site of respiration
  • produces energy in the form of ATP

 

 

STRUCTURE

  • Lysosomes

 

ULTRASTRUCTURE

  • Single membrane
  • Contains enzymes

 

FUNCTION

  • Enzymes are used to digest worn out parts of the cell
  • Material which cell has phagocytised
  • Autolysis

 

 

STRUCTURE

  • Ribosomes

 

ULTRASTRUCTURE

  • Two sub units (large and small)
  • Attached to the Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) or free in the cytoplasm

 

FUNCTION

  • Protein synthesis

 

 

STRUCTURE

  • Rough endoplasmic reticulum

 

ULTRASTRUCTURE

  • Double membrane
  • joins with the nuclear membrane
  • ribosomes attached

 

FUNCTION

  • Protein synthesis and transport

 

 

STRUCTURE

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)

 

ULTRASTRUCTURE

  • Double membrane
  • Joins with the RER

 

FUNCTION

  • Lipid and Carbohydrate synthesis and transport

 

 

STRUCTURE

  • Golgi apparatus

 

ULTRASTRUCTURE

  • Double membrane
  • Series of fluid-filled sacs (cisternae)
  • Vesicles

 

FUNCTION

  • Produces lysosomes
  • Processes, packages and secretes lipids, proteins and carbohydrates
  • Vesicles transport to cell-surface membrane

 

 

STRUCTURE

  • Microvilli

 

ULTRASTRUCTURE

  • Folded membrane

 

FUNCTION

  • Increase surface area for greater absorption of hydrolysed food molecules

 

 

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