Revision notes for Psychology AS Unit 2 – Essay plan – Explanations for forgetting

It is always useful to make essay plans for the 10 marker exam questions so that way you have broken down the question into AO1 points and AO2 points and you can answer all parts of the question. I created an essay plan for this exam question:

Describe and evaluate 2 likely explanations for forgetting

ESSAY PLAN

AO1

Interference – theory of forgetting in both STM and LTM. Memory traces disrupted by other new info

PROACTIVE – what we already know interferes with what she is trying to learn that is new

RETROACTIVE – what she is learning now (Spanish) is interfering with earlier learning (Italian)

Case study – Keppel and Underwood 1962 – to investigate effects of proactive interference on recall from memory. Participants given series of trials where they had to learn  trigrams. Then count back for either 3/9/18 seconds. They then tested the recall of the trigrams. 1st trial – 100% performance even though they had different interval times. This was because there is no preceding item to interfere. 2nd & 3rd trial – performance fell as intervals increased because the earlier learning of trigrams interferes with latter learning (proactive).

Retrieval failure – theory of forgetting in LTM due to lack of accessibility. Memory can exist but not achieved because retrieval cues are inadequate

Tulving (19740 – used cue-dependent forgetting to explain that if same cues not present at time of recall as they are during time of original learning, recall will be poor

2 types: context dependent forgetting (relevant environmental variables that were present during learning aren’t present during recall; variables are external cues) and state dependent forgetting (occurs in absence of relevant physio/psychological variables that were present during learning; variables act as internal cues)

Case study – Godden and Baddeley to see if cues from the environment affected recall. Deep sea divers learned words either on land or underwater. Recall was tested in same or different context. Those who learned and recalled in different contexts – more than 30% deficit compared to those who learned and recalled in same context.

AO2

Keppel and Underwood study has low ecological validity as the situation wouldn’t arise in real life

Strengths of interference theory – better theory than decay, recent research on real-life events has provided support for theory, proactive and retroactive are reliable effects

Limitations of interference theory – tells little about cognitive process involved in forgetting, most of the research carried out in lab experiment so low ecological validity

Strength of retrieval failure – lots of empirical evidence to support theory, can explain findings that can’t be explained by trace decay theory.

Limitation of retrieval failure – studies carried out under extreme conditions don’t reflect everyday conditions – lack ecological validity.

*always remember to include a conclusion to all your essays even if it is just a summarising sentence or else you will not be awarded full marks because no matter how well-written your essay is, you need a conclusion*

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g5erc1z

“A stirring warmth flowed from her, as if her heart was trying to come out to you concealed in one of those breathless, thrilling words.” 

Deen is a process, not a state of being, and to get a feel for this we need to look at the root of deen (دين) which is the triliteral root د ي ن. Hamza Yusuf goes into the various other meanings of words taken from the root د ي ن and I’ve listed two of them here:

  • The word deen is related to debt, and in Arabic Islam is called “ad Deen al Islam”. Literally you can translate it as the debt of submission. The idea is that we have been endowed, or given, blessings by The Creator and the debt that we owe is submission to The Creator;
  • Another meaning is the Day of Judgement, “yeom ad deen”, the day the debts fall due, the day of reckoning, the day of hisaab.

So on the Day of Judgement, we’re going to answer to the ultimate reckoning of everything we’ve done on this earth. It doesn’t matter if you’re Muslim or not, we all go through this accounting, and we know this because of Surah al Kafiroon which says:

For you is your deen, and for me is my deen.

“If your dreams don’t scare you, they aren’t big enough”

This quote has never felt so relate-able to me than now; I am at a point in my life where I am being truly tested, I am faced with making the first of many big decisions in life and the thought of stepping out of the boundaries, stepping out of my comfort zone seems scary but exciting. Its scary because you’ve never been in that new situation before so you don’t know how you will handle it but you put your trust in God because trusting in yourself in these types of situations can be shaky and unstable. It is in our instincts to go from one thing to another, our heart’s are so vulnerable that they can change at last notice, the heart places it love on different things from time to time and when your brain is going a million miles, its at that moment that you realise that putting your trust in God is the most stable ground you can take your first steps from. That is a believer’s unwavering platform.

Chemistry A level – Kinetics

*I apologise to my followers for spamming your feed with all these chemistry related posts! I’m throwing my notes away so I wanted to get these revision notes up onto the blog before I scrapped them. Bear with me please, I’ll post something that isn’t related to science soon!*

Increasing the temperature – this increases the rate of reaction because the particles have more kinetic energy therefore, they move faster, the frequency of collisions increase. More particles will have the minimum activation energy and therefore, it is most likely to have more successful collisions.

Increasing the pressure – this increases the rate of reaction because there are more particles in the same unit volume so, there are more collisions with the minimum activation energy and therefore, more successful collisions.

Increasing the concentration – increases the rate of reaction because there are more particles in the same unit volume so, there are more collisions with the minimum activation energy and therefore, more successful collisions.

Adding a catalyst – this increases the rate of reaction by providing an alternative pathway of lower minimum activation energy, so more particles have the minimum activation energy and therefore, there are more successful collisions.

Chemistry A level – Equilibria

Important definitions and concepts that need to be known for equilibrium

LE CHATELIER’S PRINCIPLE – a system as dynamic equilibrium will shift its equilibrium position to oppose any external change applied to it.

DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM – the rate of the forward reaction exactly equals the rate of the reverse reaction, maintaining constant concentration of reactants and products.

Factors affecting the equilibrium position:

Concentration – Le Chatelier’s principle predicts that if a reactant’s concentration is increased, the equilibrium position will shift to the right/the product’s side in order to decrease the concentration.

If the reactant’s concentration is decreased, the equilibrium position will shift to the left/the reactant’s side in order to increase the concentration.

if a product’s concentration is increased, the equilibrium position will shift to the left/the reactant’s side in order to decrease the concentration.

If the product’s concentration is decreased, the equilibrium position will shift to the right/the product’s side in order to increase the concentration.

Pressure – The pressure depends on the number of gas molecules in the system. Le Chatelier’s principle predicts that if the pressure is increased, the equilibrium position will shift to the side with fewer gas moles.

If the pressure is decreased, the equilibrium position will shift to the side with more gas moles.

If the number of gas moles is the same on both sides, then changing the pressure has no effect on the equilibrium position.

Catalyst – adding a catalyst will have no effect on the position of equilibrium. The addition of a catalyst will increase the rate of the forward and reverse reactions but by the same amount.

Temperature – in order to understand how temperature change may affect the equilibrium position, you must know how to identify whether a reaction is exothermic (gives heat out therefore, increasing the temperature of the system) or endothermic (takes heat in therefore, decreasing the temperature of the system).

Le Chatelier’s principle predicts that if the forward reaction is exothermic, an increase in temperature will cause the equilibrium position to shift to the left. If the forward reaction is exothermic, a decrease in temperature will cause the equilibrium position to shift to the right.

If the forward reaction is endothermic, an increase in temperature will cause the equilibrium position to shift to the right. If the forward reaction is endothermic, a decrease in temperature will cause the equilibrium position to shift to the left.